Anthrax as a
Biological Weapon (PDF File). Medical and Public Health Management. 1999
American Medical Association JAMA May 12 1999 - Vol 281, No. 18.
Smallpox as a
Biological Weapon (PDF File). Medical and Public Health Management. 1999
American Medical Association JAMA June 9 1999 - Vol 281, No. 22.
Plague as a
Biological Weapon (PDF File). Medical and Public Health Management. 2000
American Medical Association JAMA May 3 2000 - Vol 281, No. 22.
Non-Governmental Organizations Related to BW
- The Council for a Livable World has short descriptions of
Biological Weapons Related Arms
Control Agreements from the Geneva Protocol of 1925 to the The Bilateral
Destruction Agreement - 1990 between the U.S. and Soviet Union.
- The Chemical and Biological Weapons
Nonproliferation Project is online at the Henry L. Stimson Center -- which
concentrates on particularly difficult national and international security
issues where policy, technology, and politics intersect.
- The Chemical and Biological Warfare website of the
Project on Strengthening the
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and Preventing Biological Warfare at
the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK, aims to provide a
better means of spreading information on the process of strengthening the
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) worldwide
- The Emergency Response and Research
Institute (ERRI), of Chicago, IL, was founded to provide uncomplicated
solutions to complex and demanding problems. Late in 1990, ERRI began to
undertake a vastly different approach to providing news, information, research
and communications services to the emergency response and government community.
EMERGENCY Bulletin Board System (BBS) went on-line on January 15, 1991 with a
computer database retrieval service. ERRI has a special section on
Emergency Response to
Chemical/Biological Terrorist Incidents by Clark L. Staten, Executive
Director, Emergency Response & Research Institute.
- The Federation of American Scientists
Chemical and Biological Arms Control
Program covers all aspects of chemical and biological weapons and their
control, but concentrates, at present, on efforts to prevent the development and
use of biological weapons (BW) and the further proliferation of BW programs. A
major focus is the strengthening of the Biological Weapons Convention with a
compliance regime and cooperative measures for the prevention of infectious
- The Harvard Sussex Program on CBW
Armament and Arms Limitation - An international collaborative program of
research and communication to promote the global elimination of chemical and
biological weapons and to strengthen the constraints against hostile uses of
biomedical technologies and publisher of
The CBW Conventions
Bulletin (formerly the Chemical Weapons Convention Bulletin).
- Chemical and Biological
Warfare Project - (CBW Project) is one of
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute's (SIPRI) longest-running
research projects. It focuses on developments in chemical and biological
weapons, their actual or alleged use and acquisition, and efforts to obtain
effective disarmament measures aiming at their total elimination.
- The Chemical and Biological Arms Control
Institute is a nonprofit corporation established to promote the goals of
arms control and nonproliferation, with a special, although not exclusive focus
on the elimination of chemical and biological weapons. It fosters this goal by
drawing on an extensive international network to provide an innovative program
of research, analysis, technical support, and education.
- Cal Poly Chemical
and Biological Warfare Page - This page was developed by the students in
Chem 450 at Cal Poly, SLO, during Spring, 1996. The goal is to provide an
overview of chemical and biological warfare, weapons, and efforts to outlaw
U.S. Government BW Sites
Department of Defense (DoD)
- The Institute for National Strategic Studies at the
National Defense University has published a
Strategic Forum Report (Number 58, January 1996)
Biological Warfare: A
Nation at Risk--A Time to Act by the Honorable Richard Danzig, Under
Secretary of the Navy.
- Defense Technical Information Center - A
key element of the DoD Scientific and Technical Information Program, DTIC is the
central Department of Defense facility for providing access to and facilitating
the exchange of scientific and technical information.
- Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)
consolidates a variety of disparate, yet related, Defense Department functions
to deal more effectively with threats.
- Countering the Anthrax Threat -
The DoD Anthrax Vaccine information site.
- DefenseLINK - the official web site
of the Department of Defense:
- CP\CBD Web is the
internet point-of-contact for United States Department of Defense
Counterproliferation and Chemical Biological Defense Information. This website
publishes Congressional Reports, Research Tools and information about
Counterproliferation and Chemical/Biological Defense topics.
- Biotechnology and Genetic
Engineering: Implications for the Development of New Warfare Agents - 1996
Acquisition of biotechnology, and biological weapons capabilities, is
considerably easier than was the case in the 1940's and 1950's. This report
provides information to the Congressional defense committees on the national
security threats posed by such potential developments of new agents through
advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering.
- Joint Service Chemical &
Biological Defense Program Overview - This report contains a brief
description of the USDoD's Joint efforts toward chemical & biological defense
preparedness, with accomplishments and goals for the future. (7.8 Mb .pdf file)
- Nuclear Biological Chemical
Defense Annual -- Report to Congress 2000 The NBC Defense Annual Report
Series contains modernization plan summaries that highlight the USDoD's approach
to improving the current NBC Defense equipment and resolve current shortcomings
in USDoD programs. (4.5 Mb .pdf file)
Threat and Response: reports on the military threat posed by the
proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons -- weapons of mass
destruction (WMD) -- and their delivery systems. Additionally, it addresses the
Department of Defense response to counter this threat. The report focuses on the
WMD and missile threat in three areas: the technology that supports these
systems, a regional look at the current state of proliferation, and the DoD
response. It also addresses the related problems of advanced conventional
capabilities and generic problems of dual-use exports, covert purchasing
networks, and concealment and mobility of WMD.
Program Review Committee Annual Report to Congress The CPRC Annual Report
series presents the findings and recommendations of the committee to Congress,
providing a comprehensive look at the current year's key USDoD CP
accomplishments. Executive Summaries are online.(.4 Mb .pdf file)
- Dugway Proving Ground Home Page
- Home page of the U.S. Dugway Proving Ground, location of many of the field
tests of chemical and biological defense equipment and repository of historical
chemical and biological warfare information.
Defense Advance Research Projects Agency
- Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
- general information on all DARPA programs and solicitations.
- The Nuclear Biological and Chemical
Medical (Med-NBC) web page contains extensive medical documentation,
training material, audio-video clips, a powerful search engine, and links to
other related Internet sites.
- The U.S. Army Chemical and Biological
Defense Command (CBDCOM) Mission: Provide research, development and
acquisition for nuclear, biological and chemical and obscurant equipment for
U.S. forces; act as the Army nuclear, biological, and chemical defense commodity
command; provide management of joint service nuclear, biological and chemical
defense materiel; provide U.S. stockpile management and safe storage; provide
installation management; prepare for, and respond to chemical and biological
emergency events / accidents; provide weapons of mass destruction (chemical or
biological) domestic preparedness support; conduct emergency remediation /
restoration actions at chemical sites; provide successful planning, management,
and execution of treaty responsibilities; and provide demilitarization support.
CBDCOM conducts the Army’s research, concept exploration, demonstration and
validation, engineering, manufacturing, development, and internal production of
the following systems: chemical defense, obscuring smoke, aerosol, and flame
weapons. Also, the Command includes the Program Director for Biological Defense
Systems, the Executive Agent for Chemical Treaty Compliance, and the Project
Managers for the Nuclear and the Biological Material Destruction (stockpile/
nonstockpile and maintenance of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal).
Integrated Detection System (BIDS) - The number of countries pursuing an
offensive biological warfare program continues to increase. The priority of the
Army's Biological Defense Program is to limit the effects of large area
biological warfare attacks. The BIDS is being designed by the BIDS Team under
the Chemical and Biological Defense Command of the U.S. Army at Aberdeen Proving
Ground in Edgewood, Maryland. The entire program is under the Program Director
for Biological Defense Systems. The BIDS consists of 5 major subcomponents: (1)
Vehicle, (2) Shelter, (3) Auxiliary Equipment, (4) Power, and (5) Biological
- Edgewood Research,
Development and Engineering Center - is the Army's principle R & D center
for chemical and biological defense technology, engineering, and service.
- The Chemical and Biological
Defense Information Center (CBIAC), operated by
Battelle Memorial Institute, is a full
service Department of Defense (DoD) Information Analysis Center (IAC) and
administratively managed by the Defense Technical
Information Center (DTIC). The CBIAC serves as the focal point for Chemical
and Biological Defense (CW/CBD). CBIAC collects, reviews, analyzes, synthesizes,
appraises and summarizes information pertaining to CW/CBD. The CBIAC helps the
DoD meet its demanding technological needs and implement its high-priority
Research and Development (R&D) initiatives through the prompt and expert
application of existing scientific and technical information. The
newsletter is available on-line.
- The Army Medical Department
Center and School - Provides extensive information about the Army’s Medical
Department. Includes information on doctrine development and the use of medical
NBC defense products.
- USAMRIID - United States Army
Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases conducts research to
develop strategies, products, information, procedures, and training programs for
medical defense against biological warfare (BW) agents and naturally occuring
agents of military importance that require special containment.
- The U.S. Army Medical Research and
Materiel Command has Research
information on Medical Chemical and Biological Defenses
- United States Army Medical Research
Institute of Chemical Defense
U.S. Air Force
- The College of Aerospace Doctrine,
Research, and Education (CADRE) has publishes Battlefield of the Future -
21st Century Warfare Issues, with several chapters on Biological Warfare:
Pamphlet on Medical Defense against Biological Weapon Attack
U.S. Navy & Marine Corps
- Navy Chemical and Biological
Defense - Chief of Naval Operations N86DC and the Commandant of the Marine
Corps discuss the strategic direction for Naval Operations into the 21st
Other U.S. Government
- The mission of the U.S. Arms Control and
Disarmament Agency is to strengthen the national security of the United
States by formulating, advocating, negotiating, implementing and verifiying
effective arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament policies, strategies,
and agreements. In so doing, ACDA ensures that arms control is fully integrated
into the development and conduct of United States national security policy. The
site includes a page containing and index
Biological Weapons Information.
- The Report of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans'
Illnesses inlcudes a chapter on
Chemical and Biological Weapons in Iraq.
- Emerging Infectious
Diseases - The journal -- Emerging Infectious Diseases -- is part of CDC's
plan for combatting emerging infectious diseases; one of the main goals of CDC's
plan is to enhance communication of public health information about emerging
diseases so that prevention measures can be implemented without delay. Emerging
Infectious Diseases is peer reviewed and provides information on emerging
infections in the following categories: Perspectives, Synopses, Dispatches,
Research Studies, and Policy Reviews. Articles of Interest :
Russian BW Sites
Isreali BW Sites
Miscellaneous BW Sites
Biological Weapons Convention requires Parties not to develop, produce,
stockpile, or acquire biological agents or toxins "of types and in quantities
that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, and other peaceful
purposes," as well as weapons and means of delivery. The United States
unilaterally renounced biological and toxin weapons in 1969. A list of
signatories to the Convention is available.
Chemical Weapons Convention is a global treaty that bans an entire class of
weapons of mass destruction, chemical weapons. The CWC bans the production,
acquisition, stockpiling, transfer and use of chemical weapons. It entered into
force April 29, 1997.
- Microbiology 101 Internet Text - Chatper XV, Addendum:
Biological Weapons - Malignant Biology by Dr. Ron Hulbert at the University
- Chem-Bio.com - Focal point for
resources on Chem-Bio terrorism.
- A Germ
Warfare Timeline for U.S. prisoners of war in Manchuria who may have been
victims of WWII era germ-warfare experimentation. This page is provided by
Global Alliance for Preserving the History of World War II in Asia, on the China
News Digest web site.
- SpecialOperations.Com -
Information on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and more links
for both chemical and biological warfare are available at this site.
- The Other
Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre, Unit 731 & Unit 100. This site is devoted to
exposing Japanese atrocities in WWII, including biological warfare experiments
involving U.S. prisoners of war.
Jeffrey Amherst and Smallpox Blankets - Lord Jeffrey Amherst's letters
discussing germ warfare against American Indians. This site does a very nice job
of outlining the issue of biological warfare used against the American Indians.
- Applied Science and Analysis, ASA
Inc., an international organization, was established in 1983 to specialize in
nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) defense and protection issues world wide.
From 1983 to the present, ASA's concentration of capabilities has continuously
expanded. ASA also publishes the ASA Newsletter, the international journal in
the NBC Defense field read in more than 121 countries.
- Heritage Foundation Policy Paper on
Microbes and Mass Casualties: Defending America Against Bioterrorism - by
James H. Anderson, Ph.D., a Defense and National Security Analyst at The
"Bioterrorism is a looming threat, increasingly so within the borders
of the United States. It no longer is a question of if a bioterrorist attack
will happen, but of when. Biological weapons are inexpensive to manufacture, and
manufacturing facilities are nearly impossible to detect. The United States
needs to focus greater attention and resources toward protecting the American
people from suffering mass casualties at the hands of terrorists."